The branch of science that looks into the gums (gingiva) surrounding the teeth, the surface of the tooth root, the osseous structure surrounding the root and the fibers that bond the bone and the bone tissue is called periodontology.

This may include gum therapy with electro surgery, as well as tartar removal from the teeth.

Healthy Gums 

When the gingiva (gums) is healthy it has a rough surface structure similar to that of an orange fruit, and it is firmly bond and forming a straight dental line, matte and pinkish colored. When it is brushed or touched it does not bleed.

What is Gingivitis?

When the dental hygiene is not kept properly, a bacterial plaque accumulates on the teeth. This is a gluey layer, forms on and in between the teeth. In time minerals in our saliva, covers them, forming tartar (dental calculus). Its rough surface provides an ideal medium for further plaque formation, threatening the health of the gingiva. The tartar irritates the gingiva and in advanced cases it may cause bleeding in the gums.

Reasons of gingival loss

° Advanced levels of gingival infections,

° Big amount of dental plaque accumulation,

° Wrong brushing technique by applying too much force,

° Badly made fillings and crowns.


° Relieving the pain by draining the inflammation,

° Cleaning the surface tartar (calculus),

° Cleaning the deep calculus (sub-gingival),

° Oral Hygiene education and applying the correct techniques,

° In advanced cases use of vitamins and antibiotics,

° Surgically removing the infected gum tissue (gingivectomy, papillectomy)

° In the places where the bone loss, application of bio-materials or membrane to recover the bone structure,

° Use of surgical techniques such as flap operations to correct the gum loss.

What is Periodontitis?

Usually in most cases, periodontitis starts with gingivitis. If no precaution is taken gingivitis advances and turns into periodontitis. The hardened plaque accumulating on the teeth, cause inflammation. Then the gingiva become so irritated that there is a loss of the connective tissue fibers that attach the gums to the teeth and bone that surrounds the tooth. Periodontitis involves progressive loss of the alveolar bone around the teeth, and if left untreated, can lead to the loosening and subsequent loss of teeth.

Sign of Periodontitis;

° The gum tissues separate from the tooth and deepened sulcus, called a periodontal pocket occurs,

° Reddish color in the gums, bleeding after brushing,

° Reduction in the amount of alveolar bone,

° Strong oral odor,

° Pain in teeth and gums.

Uncontrolled gingivitis is one of the most important reasons of tooth loss in adults!

Infected Gingiva

Infected gingiva has a shiny surface and swollen due to edema, and the tooth line is irregular. There can be a constant pain, and bleeding while brushing. The inflammation in gingiva also causes a foul odor in the breath.

Possible reasons:

° Bacterial plaque and tartar accumulation,

° Bad oral hygiene,

° Insufficient certain vitamins,

° Unable to keep oral hygiene due to other problems,

° Some autoimmune disorders.